Belgrade Fortress (Serbian: Beogradska tvrđava), consists of the old citadel (Upper and Lower Town) and Kalemegdan Park (Large and Little Kalemegdan) on the confluence of the River Sava and Danube, in an urban area of modern Belgrade. It is located in Belgrade’s municipality of Stari Grad.
Belgrade Fortress was declared a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and is protected by the Republic of Serbia. It is the most visited tourist attraction in Belgrade, with Skadarlija being the second. Since the admission is free, it is estimated that the total number of visitors (foreign, domestic, citizens of Belgrade) is over 2 million yearly.
Belgrade Fortress is the core and the oldest section of the urban area of Belgrade. The first mention of the city is when it was founded in the 3rd century BC as “Singidunum” by the Celtic tribe of Scordisci, who had defeated Thracian and Dacian tribes that previously lived in and around the fort.
Belgrade Fortress is generally divided into four sections. The four sections, two of which make the fortress itself (Donji and Gornji Grad) and two make a Kalmegdan park today.
Kalemegdan is the most popular park among Belgraders and for many tourists visiting Belgrade because of the park’s numerous winding walking paths, shaded benches, picturesque fountains, statues, historical architecture and scenic river views (Sahat kula – the clock tower; closed in 2007 for the reconstruction, reopened in April 2014, Zindan kapija – Zindan gate, etc). The former canal which was used for city supplying in the Middle Ages is completely covered by earth but the idea of recreating it resurfaced in the early 2000s. Belgrade Fortress is known for its kilometers-long tunnels, underground corridors and catacombs, which are still largely unexplored. In the true sense, fortress is today the green oasis in the Belgrade’s urban area.